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Archive for May, 2021

What is the Water Hardness Level In Scottsdale?

Posted by Rayne Water

Scottsdale City, Arizona is home to more than 250,000 people who get their drinking supplies from a combination of surface water, groundwater, and recycled water.

In this desert city, it varies depending on where you live, but water is typically classified as very hard according to the measurements of the US Department of Interior. That is why you see plenty of types of water softener filtration systems.

Water hardness level is defined by how much calcium carbonate (a mineral) is in the water content. The higher the calcium carbonate amount, the harder the water. Anything higher than 7 grains per gallon is classified as “very hard.”

Specifically, these areas of Scottsdale, Arizona have the following hardness levels:

While water hardness isn’t regarded as a health concern, some people prefer to drink and use water that does not contain large amounts of dissolved calcium and magnesium. Finding a water softener system in Scottsdale can help.

In this brief guide we’ll detail Scottsdale water hardness, explain what water hardness is, outline tips and tricks for dealing with hard water, and look into how you can soften your home drinking water with water softeners. Read on. 

Scottsdale Water Hardness 

Scottsdale does not treat its public water supply for hardness. This is because, according to the City of Scottsdale, being able to provide the cleanest, safest—and most affordable—water to Scottsdale citizens is possible without adding water hardness treatment processes to their current treatment plan. If water hardness treatments were added, water access would not be as cost-effective. 

So, why is their tap water hard in the first place and is Scottsdale water safe to drink

What is Water Hardness? 

Water hardness is simply the amount of dissolved minerals present in your water—hard water is high in dissolved minerals. 

Hard water can leave a film of residue on your hands or body after washing, and when washing clothes, dishes, and even your hair with hard water, you may need more soap or detergent to get things clean. Minerals that you can find in hard water originate from the soils that source water (most often groundwater) comes into contact with as it travels through watersheds and into water treatment plants. 

According to the City of Scottsdale, approximately 80 percent of the U.S. has hard water, and high hard water levels are extremely prevalent in the southwest. This is due to low rainfall, hot weather, and high mineral content in the soil. 

Is Hard Water Safe?

Drinking hard water will not affect your health in any way, it’s more of a nuisance than anything. In fact, the same minerals, calcium and magnesium, that leave a filmy residue on your dishes are minerals that are crucial nutrients for human health.

Calcium helps to build strong bones and teeth while magnesium is absorbed through the stomach and helps in the maintenance of blood pressure and metabolism. Water Softener Systems starting at only $35/mo. Try before you buy!

How to Treat Hard Water 

Scottsdale City has a few low-cost tips to help you deal with the aesthetic issues caused by your hard water supply. 

These include:

Maybe these tips sound like too much work and you want to permanently eradicate your hard water issues. Or, perhaps you’re getting plenty of calcium and magnesium from other sources and want to filter out some of the minerals that are causing your water to be hard.  

Lucky for you, there’s an easy, affordable way to soften your at-home water supply with the installation of a home water softener  system or drinking water systems

Install a Water Softener From Rayne Water Today  

Soft water has a low concentration of hard minerals. To turn your hard water soft, consider investing in a home water softening system, which removes the mineral ions through a process called ion exchange. 

This process involves exchanging positively charged mineral ions (found in hard water) with positively charged ions, leaving your soft water free of minerals.

Rayne Water Conditioning specializes in different types of water softener systems and other types of water treatment systems, like the reverse osmosis system. We have been servicing the denizens of California, Arizona, and Nevada since 1928. Rayne has 24/hour on-call veteran technicians available to address any water softener issues you have at any time. 

Our team of water care professionals offer extensive expertise as well as six different water softener systems to choose from. When you can select from a variety of water softener systems and filtration systems, (including everything from a basic model to a Guardian Elite model specifically designed for larger homes) you can find the solution that’s best for you.

Ready to soften your hard water supply? Whether you need Phoenix water softener solutions or treatment system installation in Scottsdale, we got you covered. Call your local Rayne Water office today. 

Find a location near you!


City of Scottsdale. Drinking Water. 

City of Scottsdale. Hard Water Facts. 

Rayne Water. Residential Whole House Water Softener Systems. 

Scottsdale Water. 2019 Water Quality Report. 

U.S. Geological Survey. Hardness of Water. 

Is Scottsdale Water Safe to Drink?

Posted by Rayne Water


*Reviewed by Ken Christopher, Senior Vice President at Rayne Dealership Corporation

Scottsdale, Arizona’s drinking water is sourced from rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and wells. If you’re a Scottsdale resident or you’re considering a move to “The West’s Most Western Town,” you probably have questions about Scottsdale water quality.

In which case, is Scottsdale water safe to drink? 

According to the drinking water quality report of the Environmental Working Group—for the latest quarter assessed by the U.S. EPA (January 2019-March 2019)—the tap water of the city of Scottsdale did comply with “federal health-based drinking water standards.”

This means legally, yes, it is safe to consume the tap water in Scottdale. But there are still contaminants in this potable water source that you may want to know more about. In this guide, we’ll break down where Scottsdale water comes from, how it’s treated through water filtration, and what contaminants have been detected in the water. And, if you’re interested in exploring a water softener system in Scottsdale, we just what you need.

Let’s dive in. 

Scottsdale Water Quality 

The Scottsdale water hardness is 22-25 grain per gallon or 432 PPM and comes primarily from surface water (78%), groundwater (10%), and recycled water (12%).

Before the 1980s, the city was “100 percent reliant on groundwater” for its water supply. Today, the water supply of the city comes primarily from renewable surface water sources and recycled water, ensuring that the water supply will last for generations. This is why people prefer having their own water softener system.

Let’s explore these water sources a little more in-depth:

Surface Water 

The main surface water supply for the city is the Colorado River water. This water is moved to the Scottsdale Water Campus’ CAP Water Treatment Plant through the Central Arizona Project canal

There are three facilities in the CAP Plant that function as follows:

The Verde River and Salt River are also water sources of the Scottsdale water, which are channeled to the Chaparral Water Treatment Plant by the Salt River Project. This plant uses granular activated carbon and ultrafiltration membranes to treat the water. 


While the city used to rely entirely on groundwater supplies for drinking water, today, only a small portion stems for aquifers below ground. Scottsdale currently has 23 active wells and oversees the operation of several groundwater treatment plants. The ADEQ, EPA, and Maricopa County regulates the treatment of groundwater to ensure that the quality complies and even exceeds the state and federal standards for drinking water. 

Recycled water 

As one of the most advanced and largest water recycling plants in the world, the Scottsdale water recycling facility treats water for residences and businesses , treating water well above federal drinking water regulations. This recycled water is also used for replenishing local groundwater supplies as well as turf irrigation.

Water Softener Systems starting at only $35/mo. Try before you buy!

Contaminants Detected in Scottsdale Water 

The Environmental Working Group (EWG) is a nonprofit—founded in 1993—that provides easily accessible information to people interested in learning more about the safety standards involved with food and water, farming and agriculture, personal care products, household products, and more. 

EWG’s 2019 tap water database found that Scottsdale’s water supply, while in compliance with federal standards, did contain 17 total contaminants, with seven of these exceeding EWG’s health guidelines. 

The EWG guidelines are primarily based on the public health goals established by scientists in the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. 

There are seven contaminants that exceed EWG guidelines found in the drinking water of Scottsdale. These include:


It is a natural mineral that can be found in all drinking water in the U.S. Arsenic was found 871 times above EWG’s health guideline of 0.004 parts per billion or less in Scottsdale. Scottsdale’s arsenic levels are 3.49 parts per billion; the national average is .682 ppb; the legal limit set forth by the EPA is 10 ppb. 

According to EWG, the legal limit set forth of this contaminant is “not low enough to protect public health, potentially causing up to 600 cancer cases in 1 million people who drink arsenic-contaminated water for a lifetime.”


It is a carcinogen that may be found in water due to natural occurrences or industrial pollution. In Scottsdale, Chromium was found 177 times above EWG’s guidelines, which are .02 ppb or less. The city’s chromium levels are 3.54 ppb; the national average is .492 ppb; plus, EPA has not set any legal limit of chromium.

Haloacetic acids 

These are formed when chlorine fluoride and other disinfectants are mixed into the tap water. In Scottsdale City alone, these acids were found 112 times above EWG’s guidelines which indicate that water should only have .1 ppb or less of haloacetic acids. 

Scottsdale’s haloacetic acid levels are 11.2 ppb; the national average is 17.2 ppb, and the legal limit is 60 ppb. Health concerns associated with these acids include cancer and harm to fetal growth and development. 


Nitrate is a fertilizer chemical that may contaminate water supplies due to agricultural and urban runoff. Nitrate was found in Scottsdale water supplies at a level 11 times above EWG’s guidelines, which indicate that water should include .14 ppm of nitrate or less. 

Scottsdale’s nitrate levels are 1.51 ppm; the national average is .937 ppm; and the legal limit is 10 ppm. Health concerns associated with nitrate in water include an increased risk of cancer and oxygen deprivation in infants. 

Nitrate and nitrite 

These are contaminants that get mixed into the water because of septic tanks, fertilizer runoff, and other urban runoff. These contaminants were found in Scottsdale water at a level 9.8 times above EWG’s standards (.14 ppm or less). 

Nitrate and nitrite levels in Scottsdale’s water supply is 1.37 ppm; the national average is .891 ppm; and the legal limit is 10 ppm. Like nitrate, nitrite can also cause an increased risk of cancer and oxygen deprivation in infants. 

Total trihalomethanes 

These are types of contaminants that form when chlorine and other disinfectants are mixed in during water treatment. The amount of trihalomethanes found in Scottsdale’s water supplies were 319 times above EWG’s standards of .15 ppb or less. 

Scottsdale’s water supply contains 47.8 ppb of these contaminants; the national average is 30.1 ppb, and the legal limit is 80 ppb. Health concerns associated with these contaminants include bladder cancer, skin cancer, and harm to fetal growth and development. 


This carcinogen was found in Scottsdale water at 3.8 times above EWG’s standards of .43pCi/L (picocuries per liter) or less. Scottsdale’s uranium levels are 1.61pCi/L; the national average is 1.09pCi/L, and the legal limit is 20pCi/L. Health concerns associated with this carcinogen include cancer and harm to the kidney. 

Get Safe, Clean Drinking Water with Rayne Water Filters  

Is Scottsdale water safe to drink?

Legally, yes, the water coming from the taps in the city of Scottsdale is safe to consume. But not everyone is comfortable sipping on H20 that contains more than half-a-dozen contaminants, from nitrates to uranium. 

Luckily, there is a safe, easy way to filter out unwanted contaminants in your tap water. 

At-home drinking water filtration systems—like reverse osmosis systems, ion exchange systems, and other drinking water systems—can purify your drinking water so you can rest easy knowing your family isn’t potentially being exposed to dangerous chemicals or carcinogens. 

At Rayne Water, veteran, factory-trained techs provide 24/hour service, so once your water filtration system is installed, you can have someone on call to help you address any issues you may run into and answer any questions that might surface. 

Rayne Water has been in business since 1928 and services all of California, Arizona, and Nevada. Interested in learning more about Rayne’s top-of-the-line water filtration products? Contact your local Rayne Water office today to drink water with the peace of mind you deserve.

Find a location near you!


  1. CDC. Choosing Home Water Filters & Other Water Treatment Systems
  2. Environmental Working Group. City of Scottsdale. 
  3. EWG. Arsenic. 
  4. EWG. Chromium. 
  5. EWG. Haloacetic Acids. 
  6. EWG. Total Trihalomethanes. 
  7. Scottsdale Water. 2019 Water Quality Report. 

Expert Reviewer – Ken Christopher

Is Fluoride in Water Bad For You?

Posted by Rayne Water

Is fluoride in water bad for you? Short answer: no. In fact, it’s quite the opposite. Fluoride has been regularly added to America’s public water system supplies to help strengthen teeth and prevent cavities since 1945. 

According to the CDC or Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the addition of this mineral to drinking water has been found to reduce the risk of tooth decay by up to 25% for both children and adults. 

If you have ever wondered, is fluoride in water bad for you, or does reverse osmosis remove fluoride in the water? This guide has all the answers you’ll need. We’ll outline what exactly this mineral is and explore the potential benefits and drawbacks of fluoride, how you can measure the amount of fluoride in your water, and how you can regulate your fluoride intake with home water filters or water softeners. 

What is Fluoride? 

It is a mineral that can naturally be found in your teeth and bones. It’s also found in water, soil, plants, rocks, and even air. When we talk about the human consumption of fluoride, it is generally in regard to oral health. Dentists like fluoride because it strengthens the enamel of teeth, thus preventing the risk of forming cavities. 

Outside of the dentist’s office, this mineral can also be used:

Where Does Fluoride Come From

Fluoride is a mineral that’s naturally present in the earth. Primary fluoride sources include:

The Benefits of Fluoride in Water

The primary benefit of fluoride is that it strengthens tooth enamel. This may seem like a minor detail, but in reality, maintaining healthy teeth and oral health is an important way to also maintain a healthy body. Here’s why:

Tooth enamel protects the inner layers of your tooth from acids, bacteria, and plaque, all of which can lead to more serious severe illnesses. The reason has to do with the tooth itself. The inner layers of the tooth offer a direct path to the skeletal structures of your jaw and skull, circulatory system, and nervous system. The stronger the enamel, the more these parts of your body are protected. 

Let’s look at how fluoride keeps your gnashers strong, plus other benefits of adding fluoride to water:

Fluoride, a naturally occurring mineral, can help prevent the loss of minerals from the tooth enamel and can also accelerate the repair process of putting minerals back into damaged enamel. Fluoride can also reduce acid production in your mouth, helping to prevent the formation of cavities in the first place.

Reverse Osmosis Systems starting at only $25/mo. Try before you buy!

The Drawbacks of Fluoride in Water  

Adding fluoride to water has proven effective when it comes to cavity reduction. But can too much fluoride ultimately cause your body harm? 

An excess intake of fluoride can cause:

This condition typically occurs during the formation of childhood teeth when children consume too much fluoride from multiple sources. This may look like a child ingesting fluoride toothpaste in large quantities, or consuming too much fluoride via fluoride supplements, plus drinking fluoridated water. 

This disease is most commonly found in countries like India and China, where there are longer periods of groundwater consumption with high levels of naturally occurring fluoride.

So should you be worried about an excess of fluoride in your tap water? Not necessarily. Some places have high levels of fluoride, which can cause health problems, as mentioned above, but typically the amount of fluoride found in groundwater is between a safe 0.01 to 0.3 parts per million. When groundwater approaches 4 parts fluoride per mission, it becomes hazardous. 

Translation? There would have to be 400 times more fluoride parts per million than the typical groundwater contains. In fact, according to a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, the fluoride concentration in most potable water wells sampled in the county were “below the optimal concentration recommended to prevent tooth decay.” 

High amounts of fluoride in your drinking water is extremely unlikely. According to the study mentioned above, you’re more likely not to be getting enough fluoride than you are to be getting too much. 

How Much Fluoride is In Your Drinking Water? 

Just because fluoridating water is a common practice in the U.S. doesn’t mean the city you live in currently adds this mineral to its public drinking supplies. 

To see whether or not your city fluoridates its water, head to the CDC website where there is a tool that allows you to see if your city adds fluoride to water and if so, how much. From there, you can gauge if your drinking water is providing enough fluoride for your health or if you need to increase your intake of this vital mineral. 

Get the Right Amount of Fluoride with Water Filters 

So, is fluoride in water bad for you? The short answer: when consumed in safe amounts, fluoride can be highly beneficial to your overall oral health. 

The suggested fluoride intake for adults over the age of 18 is a max of 3 milligrams of the mineral per day. Most public water systems in the U.S. contain .7 parts per million of fluoride. However, your county may not be introducing enough fluoride into the drinking water to ensure maximum health benefits for you, your family, and your whole community. In cases like these, it’s always best to take control of your health. Consider investing in a home water filtration system. 

Home water filtration systems can:

Trust Rayne Water to Improve Your Water Systems

Consider investing in a home water filtration system to control how much fluoride is in your drinking water.. Rayne Water Conditioning services are based in Arizona, California, and Nevada and can help you install reverse osmosis systems that will help clear your water of excess fluoride, as well as any contaminants. 

Interested in learning more about keeping your water safe and clean for your family? Our trained experts can help you find the perfect solution for your home water systems, like a reverse osmosis water filter system, so that you can enjoy better water quality every day. Check out our services and products today!

Find a location near you!


American Dental Association. 5 Reasons Why Fluoride in Water is Good for Communities. 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Over 75 Years of Community Water Fluoridation 

Healthline. Fluoride: Good or Bad? 

Healthline. What Is Fluoride, and Is It Safe? 

Mayo Clinic. Oral Health: A Window to Your Overall Health. 

National Institutes of Health: Office of Dietary Supplements. Fluoride. 

Rayne Water. Effects of Fluoridated Drinking Water. 

U.S. Department of the Interior. A Comprehensive Assessment of Fluoride in Groundwater. 

Does Reverse Osmosis Remove Fluoride?

Posted by Rayne Water

Does reverse osmosis remove fluoride from drinking water? The short answer: yes, it does! But what exactly is reverse osmosis?

This brief guide will explore how reverse osmosis water filtration systems remove fluoride from drinking water. We’ll also define what fluoride is and why some people find it beneficial to absorb through their drinking waters, while others are wary about consuming too much fluoride at the risk of developing certain very rare health issues. 

So, continue reading to learn more about removing fluoride using reverse osmosis. 

What is Reverse Osmosis?

Reverse osmosis (RO) is becoming an increasingly popular option for home water filtration systems. An RO filter can remove impurities, contaminants, and unwanted dissolved solids from your unfiltered water. 

One method of removing contaminants within freshwater by putting the water under pressure and pushing it through a special filter is called Reverse Osmosis. Mineral contaminants cannot go through the filter, allowing fresh water to leave behind extra substances you don’t want in your drinking water. 

This is essentially what happens when you install a Reverse Osmosis filter. The RO filter’s semi-permeable membrane thoroughly filters out contaminants and dissolved minerals like lead, arsenic, iron, mercury, sodium, and, you guessed it, fluoride. 

What is Fluoride? 

It is a mineral that is found naturally in our bones and teeth as well as air, soil, plants, rocks, freshwater, seawater, and many foods. Fluoride can be added to drinking water supplies, supplements, and dental products. 

The Benefits of Fluoride

So, is fluoride bad for you? Fluoride has been added to the country’s public drinking water for decades primarily because it has proven to be a safe, cost-effective way to prevent dental cavities and improve dental health. Fluoride helps to repair tooth enamel damaged by bacteria and can also help reduce the acid in your mouth, thus preventing cavities from forming. 

Maintaining good oral health is so important to communities that add fluoride to public water because they recognize that dental hygiene can affect every aspect of one’s life. Fluoride can prevent bacterial infections in the mouth and bone, issues in the circulatory system, nerve damage, and even malnutrition due to the weakening of teeth.

The Drawbacks of Too Much Fluoride 

There are critics of fluoridating public drinking water systems who say this is an individual decision that should not be controlled by the city in which you reside. On one hand, too much fluoride can cause dental fluorosis—a kind of tooth damage—or skeletal fluorosis—a weakening of the bones.

But how much is too much, exactly?

Studies show that a fluoride content of .7 parts per million is ideal for proper health benefits. When do these levels start to become hazardous? When the fluoride content of water is at 4.0 parts per million. That means the groundwater would have to have almost 600 times the ideal fluoride content.

Luckily, it’s pretty unlikely you live in an area with exceptionally high fluoride levels in the groundwater. According to a recent study by the U.S. Geological Survey, most drinking water is actually below the optimal concentration for health benefits. 

Why Is Fluoride Added to Water?

Quite simply put: it’s amazing for your teeth. Adding fluoride to drinking water systems has been shown to improve the dental health of a population dramatically. That means less costly dental procedures, fewer threats to our health, and improved quality of life across the community.

In fact, researchers had begun making the connection between healthy teeth and fluoride as far back as the 1800s. After Grand Rapids, Michigan became the first city to fluoridate (add fluoride) to its public water system in 1945, many cities and towns across the country followed suit, adding this naturally occurring mineral to their own water supplies. 

Fluoride has been identified by the CDC or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as an effective method of delivering fluoride across the community regardless of age, education, or socioeconomic status. However, some individuals would rather choose their own fluoride levels for their at-home drinking water. 

Reverse Osmosis Systems starting at only $25/mo. Try before you buy!

Install a Rayne Water Reverse Osmosis System Today 

While fluoridating public water systems has been proven to effectively maintain a community’s oral health and prevent cavities, some people would still prefer to control how much fluoride they consume by sticking to dental products containing the mineral, or eating foods that naturally contain fluoride. 

If you want to say goodbye to fluoride in your tap water forever, consider installing a home filtration reverse osmosis system

An RO water filter can remove impurities, contaminants, and unwanted dissolved solids from your unfiltered water—this includes fluoride removal. 

Choose Rayne Water for Your Filtration Needs

At Rayne Water Conditioning, we have top-of-the-line, residential RO filtration systems available in three different units. The Clear system is a basic Reverse Osmosis filter system, the Pure Plus is a four-stage RO water filter system, and the deluxe Eradicator is the most efficient Reverse Osmosis water filter system we have available. 

Ready to learn more about how to remove fluoride and other impurities from your drinking water ? Call your local Rayne Water office today. 

Find a location near you!


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Over 75 Years of Community Water Fluoridation 

Healthline. Fluoride: Good or Bad? 

Rayne Water. Effects of Fluoridated Drinking Water. 

Rayne Water. Residential Reverse Osmosis Systems. 

U.S. Department of the Interior. A Comprehensive Assessment of Fluoride in Groundwater.

Medical News Today. Why do we have fluoride in our water?